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亚博娱乐游戏网站:美国国家公共电台 NPR 在世界各地,全面接种疫苗意味着什么?

时间:2022-05-13 03:06来源:互联网 提供网友:nan ? 字体: [ ]


Around the world, what does it mean to be fully1 vaccinated3?


The question of what fully vaccinated means might be changing as booster shots are becoming more important. More data, and new policies, are emerging in the U.S. and around the world.


What does it take to be considered fully vaccinated at this point - one shot, two shots, boosters? With the emergence5 of highly contagious6 variants7, like omicron, many countries are looking at how to adjust their guidance. So this morning we're going to take a snapshot of what three countries are doing - the U.S., France and Israel.

We're joined now by NPR health correspondent Rob Stein, along with correspondents Eleanor Beardsley in Paris and Daniel Estrin in Jerusalem.

Good morning to all three of you.

ROB STEIN, BYLINE8: Good morning.



MARTIN: Daniel, I want to start with you. Israel was the first country to get a majority of citizens vaccinated with two shots. And it was the first to roll out boosters on a wide scale. So now Israel is beginning another round of boosters - a fourth shot. Why?

ESTRIN: Right. Well, COVID cases are just exploding here. Yesterday set the record for new daily infections since the pandemic began. So they want to protect the older population. And so Israel is offering a fourth vaccine9 shot to people 60 and older - also to elder care homes, to immunosuppressed people and to medical teams. And Israel's conducting trials on this fourth shot. And there are some initial results that show that it increases antibodies fivefold just a week after taking the shot.

And Prime Minister Naftali Bennett is really touting10 this.


PRIME MINISTER NAFTALI BENNETT: This is good news. It's preliminary information. But simply stated, the fourth dose is secure, and the fourth dose works.

ESTRIN: Now, what has not worked is convincing enough Israelis to get even two shots. Only 64% of Israelis are double-vaccinated. There is hesitancy among Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, among ultra-Orthodox Jews, but also in the general population. For instance, many parents are hesitant to vaccinate2 their young kids.

MARTIN: Let's move to France. Eleanor, that country is stepping up its emphasis on boosters. What's the guidance been?

BEARDSLEY: Well, you know what, Rachel, in November, the government reduced the time between your second vaccine and the booster from six months to three, and it gave everyone over 65 until December 15 to get that booster if you want to keep your vaccine pass valid11. So today if you're over 65, you're not considered fully vaccinated unless you've had those three doses. Now the booster is open to anyone over 18. And the backdrop of this is, you know, exploding cases. France just hit another all-time European record of daily infections - 270,000. It's leading the continent.

MARTIN: So, Rob, how does this approach compare to how the U.S. is looking at this? I mean, does the definition of fully vaccinated mean boosted here, at least as far as health professionals look at it?

STEIN: No, at least not yet. You know, there's been some talk about changing the official definition of fully vaccinated in the U.S. But at the moment, it's still two shots of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine and one Johnson & Johnson shot. But, you know, the Biden administration has made boosting the vaccinated a top priority and has aggressively been expanding the pool of people eligible12 for boosters. In fact, the Food and Drug Administration just authorized13 boosters for yet another big group - you know, kids ages 12 to 15. That's because even though omicron is better at sneaking14 around the vaccines15, the first round of shots still do a decent job of protecting people from getting really sick, even from omicron. And just one extra shot pumps the protection way back up again.

And the biggest problem the U.S. faces by far is still the unvaccinated. Thirty-five million people in the U.S. haven't even gotten their first shots. And millions of vaccinated people still haven't gotten their first booster, including lots of the most vulnerable people, like the elderly. And that's why hospitals are starting to get overwhelmed in many places in this country again.

MARTIN: So let's talk about that challenge - what it takes to get people vaccinated and boosted. Daniel, you mentioned that this is a problem in Israel. There are a lot of vaccine-hesitant populations. So what's the government there doing about it?

ESTRIN: Well, a big incentive16 here is that if you get vaccinated, you get what's called a green pass. And this lets you into restaurants and music concerts and all kinds of places. And they've gotten pretty strict about it. So you need a QR code on your phone. And they scan in at the door before you enter. And this green pass expires six months after your last shot because the philosophy here is that antibodies fade over time. So that is actually an incentive to get a booster. You keep your green pass valid, and you can go about your life. The thing is, Rachel, that the system still has not convinced about 30% of Israelis to even get the first shot because there are ways to get this green pass even without getting a vaccine. You can get a green pass if you've recovered from the virus within the last six months. You can get one for 24 hours if you test negative. So unvaccinated people continue to go about their lives. The one thing that we have seen move the needle a little bit is that this latest wave has convinced a little bit more of the Israeli population to get vaccinated for the first time. It's just not enough.

MARTIN: Yeah. Eleanor, France is now actually ahead of the U.S. and Israel in getting people vaccinated. How's that happening?

BEARDSLEY: Well, you know, you're right, Rachel. You know, 76% of the total French population is vaccinated. When you look at those over 18, it's 91%. That's pretty high. But the government is pushing for more - more children, more boosters. It's aiming to give 25 million vaccines in the next five weeks, which is a huge challenge. And also, President Emmanuel Macron's majority party is pushing through a strict law in parliament that's going to make it impossible to get around - you know, go to restaurants, cafes, cultural venues17 - with a negative test, which has been allowed until now.

But with this new law, you're going to have to show full vaccination18 and vaccination only. Now, this measure was on track to become law in mid-January. I say was because last night things kind of exploded when Macron gave a newspaper interview. And basically, he said he wanted to piss off the unvaccinated till the very end and make it impossible for them to do anything.

MARTIN: Was that a direct quote?

BEARDSLEY: That is actually a direct quote light because he was even more vulgar...

MARTIN: Oh, man.

BEARDSLEY: ...Was not a direct translation. Yeah. But he's clearly fed up with the 5 million French people who've had no vaccine. But it was a pretty incendiary remark. The social networks are exploding this morning. His opponents are calling him vulgar, divisive. They say he wants to make unvaccinated, you know, people second-class citizens. And even parliamentarians who support the measure are asking if it's to save French lives or to - you know, using his words - piss off the unvaccinated. The French parliament was debating this bill last night when Macron's remarks came out, and angry opponents suspended the session.

And here's what the French parliament sounded like about 1 o'clock this morning.



MARTIN: Intense.


MARTIN: So, Rob, when we look back here at the U.S., what is the bottom line? I mean, should we just expect to need to get a fourth shot soon?

STEIN: You know, I've talked with some experts who think it may be time to make another booster available to very specific groups of people in the U.S., you know, such as more people with weak immune systems, the elderly, maybe health care workers. But most of those I've been talking with and federal officials, like Dr. Anthony Fauci, see things very differently than, say, Israel. They say we're just not there yet. And that's because, as I said earlier, vaccinated and boosted people are still protected against getting really sick, even against omicron. And there are some possible downsides to launching yet another big round of boosters, like, you know, taking our eye off the ball of the main priority of getting the unvaccinated vaccinated and boosting the vaccinated.

And there's also some concern that if people get too many boosters with the original vaccine, it could kind of backfire, and the shots could start to kind of lose their punch. If yet another shot is needed, it may make more sense to go with a variant-specific vaccine. But it's far from clear we need any of that yet or ever will. All that said, the U.S. is keeping a close eye on what's going on in this country and elsewhere and not totally closing the door to yet another booster if it turns out the protection does start to get dangerously weak again and evidence emerges that another additional booster does look necessary and effective. So, you know, all things are still on the table.

MARTIN: NPR health correspondent Rob Stein, also NPR correspondents Eleanor Beardsley and Daniel Estrin. Thanks to all three of you.

STEIN: You bet.

BEARDSLEY: Thank you, Rachel.

ESTRIN: Thanks, Rachel.


1 fully     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
2 vaccinate     
  • Local health officials then can plan the best times to vaccinate people.这样,当地的卫生官员就可以安排最佳时间给人们接种疫苗。
  • Doctors vaccinate us so that we do not catch smallpox.医生给我们打预防针使我们不会得天花。
3 vaccinated     
  • I was vaccinated against tetanus. 我接种了破伤风疫苗。
  • Were you vaccinated against smallpox as a child? 你小时候打过天花疫苗吗?
4 transcript     
  • A transcript of the tapes was presented as evidence in court.一份录音带的文字本作为证据被呈交法庭。
  • They wouldn't let me have a transcript of the interview.他们拒绝给我一份采访的文字整理稿。
5 emergence     
  • The last decade saw the emergence of a dynamic economy.最近10年见证了经济增长的姿态。
  • Language emerges and develops with the emergence and development of society.语言是随着社会的产生而产生,随着社会的发展而发展的。
6 contagious     
  • It's a highly contagious infection.这种病极易传染。
  • He's got a contagious laugh.他的笑富有感染力。
7 variants     
n.变体( variant的名词复数 );变种;变型;(词等的)变体
  • Those variants will be preserved in the'struggle for existence". 这些变异将在“生存竞争”中被保留下来。 来自辞典例句
  • Like organisms, viruses have variants, generally called strains. 与其他生物一样,病毒也有变种,一般称之为株系。 来自辞典例句
8 byline     
  • His byline was absent as well.他的署名也不见了。
  • We wish to thank the author of this article which carries no byline.我们要感谢这篇文章的那位没有署名的作者。
9 vaccine     
  • The polio vaccine has saved millions of lives.脊髓灰质炎疫苗挽救了数以百万计的生命。
  • She takes a vaccine against influenza every fall.她每年秋季接种流感疫苗。
10 touting     
v.兜售( tout的现在分词 );招揽;侦查;探听赛马情报
  • He's been touting his novel around publishers for years. 他几年来一直到处找出版商兜售自己的小说。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Technology industry leaders are touting cars as a hot area for growth. 科技产业领袖吹捧为增长热点地区的汽车。 来自互联网
11 valid     
  • His claim to own the house is valid.他主张对此屋的所有权有效。
  • Do you have valid reasons for your absence?你的缺席有正当理由吗?
12 eligible     
  • He is an eligible young man.他是一个合格的年轻人。
  • Helen married an eligible bachelor.海伦嫁给了一个中意的单身汉。
13 authorized     
  • An administrative order is valid if authorized by a statute.如果一个行政命令得到一个法规的认可那么这个命令就是有效的。
14 sneaking     
  • She had always had a sneaking affection for him. 以前她一直暗暗倾心于他。
  • She ducked the interviewers by sneaking out the back door. 她从后门偷偷溜走,躲开采访者。
15 vaccines     
疫苗,痘苗( vaccine的名词复数 )
  • His team are at the forefront of scientific research into vaccines. 他的小组处于疫苗科研的最前沿。
  • The vaccines were kept cool in refrigerators. 疫苗放在冰箱中冷藏。
16 incentive     
  • Money is still a major incentive in most occupations.在许多职业中,钱仍是主要的鼓励因素。
  • He hasn't much incentive to work hard.他没有努力工作的动机。
17 venues     
n.聚集地点( venue的名词复数 );会场;(尤指)体育比赛场所;犯罪地点
  • The band will be playing at 20 different venues on their UK tour. 这个乐队在英国巡回演出期间将在20个不同的地点演出。
  • Farmers market corner, 800 meters long, 60 meters wide livestock trading venues. 农牧市场东北角,有长800米,宽60米的牲畜交易场地。 来自互联网
18 vaccination     
  • Vaccination is a preventive against smallpox.种痘是预防天花的方法。
  • Doctors suggest getting a tetanus vaccination every ten years.医生建议每十年注射一次破伤风疫苗。
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